This is a summary of activity of suspected state sponsored Threat Actor Groups analyzed by the Threat Recon Team, based on data and information collected from November 21 to December 20, 2018.
A total of four hacking groups were found to be active within SectorA.
Among this detected activity, SectorA05 activity was relatively more intense than others and all SectorA05 activity was highly related to political hacking aimed at South Korea.
There are two main purposes of hacking by SectorA for the month, which can be distinguished by activity aimed at Korea and activity aimed at other countries.
The first is hacking activity targeting financial institutions overseas, and virtual currency exchanges and individual traders in South Korea. This is used to overcome financial and economic sanctions that are currently ongoing against SectorA. The second is hacking activity related to the more traditional espionage aimed at stealing information related to South Korea’s political and diplomatic activities.
Although malware and hacking techniques used by SectorA differ depending on the target, SectorA consistently targets individuals who belong to target organizations by utilizing Spear Phishing with malicious documents attached.
One of their strategies, using Cloud services as their C2 server for hacking activities, is used against both overseas and South Korean targets.
Another strategy, utilizing malware in the form of document reader files, differs depending on the target – overseas targets receive traditional Microsoft Office files, while South Korean targets will receive Hangeul Word Processor (HWP) files regardless of whether they live in South Korea or overseas.
SectorB targets countries from various regions around the world, and a total of four hacking groups activity were found to be active. Targets were found in the Oceania region including Australia, the European region including the United Kingdom, and the East Asian region including South Korea. Among this detected activity, some malware that had been used in the past was modified, or malware produced based on open source code was used for hacking activities. Like before, hacking activity targeted at South Korea utilized Spear Phishing, which included Microsoft Word files containing Macros, and our analysis of the malware used shows that this campaign started in early 2018. In addition, SectorB targets started to include South Korean financial companies.
A total of three hacking groups activity were found to be active within SectorC.
Among this detected activity, SectorC01 activity was relatively more intense than others and SectorC activity was found to be aimed at South Europe including Spain, East Asia including Japan, and Eastern Europe including Ukraine and Poland.
Although hacking activities by SectorC groups around the world were conducted mainly to obtain information related to government agencies, they seem to be targeting Eastern Europe for other purposes based on the characteristics of their malware. SectorC still uses Spear Phishing with code execution vulnerabilities in Microsoft Word files or Microsoft Word files with macros for the initial infection in order to drop variants of their usual malware, although this time they have also included variants written in a different programming language. In addition, SectorC sometimes used only script and normal utility files for attacks on Eastern Europe.
A total of four hacking groups were found to be active within SectorD, and targets were concentrated in Middle Eastern countries, including Lebanon, Oman, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Iraq and Israel.
In addition to the use of Phishing websites, there were also cases where Spear Phishing was used with malware in the form of Microsoft Word files containing macros.
Although SectorD groups mainly utilize script-based malware, there were cases of hacking activities targeted at energy companies in Italy with ties to the Middle East which had reused the Wiper malware which was used in the past to disrupt normal system operations.
A total of three hacking groups activity were found to be active within SectorE, and targets were along the Central Asia region, which includes Pakistan, a political rival of SectorE, as well as Chinese companies.
The hacking activities of the SectorE took advantage of vulnerabilities in Microsoft Office, or Spear Phishing involving file-based malware that exploited vulnerabilities in InPage software, along with malware in the form of Word or Excel files containing macros.
In addition, the execution of malware is structured so that the download function is executed in the first step, and the next steps only work if the first one succeeded, reducing exposure to the outside as much as possible. However, as their malware, C2 IPs and C2 Domains were found to have some overlapping characteristics, it can be seen that SectorE groups share various hacking and malware production techniques.
SectorF activities were discovered targeting East Asia, including China and Japan.
They primarily utilizing Spear Phishing, attaching Microsoft Word files containing macros to emails.
While some of the code used in their malware was found to have been produced based on open source code used for penetration testing, others were found to be variants of their custom malware.
The full report detailing each event together with IOCs and recommendations is available to existing NSHC Threat Recon customers.